There are two different items which you might be referring to (see screenshot).
The first (in the red box) is alignment and is very similar to what you would have in Word. The second (in the aqua box) is directionality, such as right-to-left found in Arabic and Hebrew. This directionality feature was NOT in CS5 (except the Middle Eastern version).
To access the Middle Eastern functionality is CS6, you have to go to your Preferences and choose Type. Then, under Text Engine Options, choose Middle Eastern. You'll need to relaunch Photoshop for the change to take effect. Once PS is relaunched, click the Type menu and select Language Options > Middle Eastern Features. Now, you'll notice that your Character and Paragraph panels have lengthened with new icons to support these features.