If you have any undocked panels in Photoshop, when you close all of the open documents and return to the Home screen, the panels are on top of the Home screen. It appears that if the panels are docked then don't behave like this. Here's a screen shot.
That makes no sense at all. It also didn't behave that way in PS CC 2018. Why would I want the floating panels covering the content of the Home screen. The panels don't / can't do anything from the home screen (see my example with the Adjustment Panel, or the Layers Panel or the Properties panel for an adjustment layer). I don't buy this is "as designed". This is clearly a bug introduced in CC 2019. I'm also not using the Home screen button to explicitly use it. I'm closing the last open document from PS and as a result go back to the home screen.
Guess I'm missing something from your example. On your Home Screen you don't have any of the floating panels in the way of the images or options available on the home screen. It also looks like you might be using dual monitors so you can see the document you have on the right visible at the same time as the home screen. I just can't imagine why this new behavior would be intentional .