Photoshop 14.1.2 on a Macbook pro running OSX 10.9.1 When typing text the text doesn't wrap but disappears outside the box. This is independent of point size. The text can be seen if I resize the text box and it appears in the bar above the main window.
What's your leading value set to? I would bet it's probably greater than what can be displayed in the bounding box. The leading control is the second control from the top on the right side in the Character Panel. You can also reset it by click the flyout menu for the Character Panel and choosing Reset Character. Generally, unless you have a good reason otherwise, leaving this control set to Auto is a good idea.