Some time ago there was a problem with Photoshop launching with all palettes and toolbars collapsed. It has been fixed recently but there is still problem with the Layers palette. It is still starting as collapsed even if the workspace is set to locked in Photoshop 2020.
Same problem here (on latest Win10). I already created a custom work profile, but didn't worked. Layers, Properties etc. are always collapsed at startup. I mean it's not a bottleneck, but just really annoying.
Here's the screenshot (Warstwy is the Layers palette).
Funny thing - if I exit the Photoshop while the Curves (Ścieżki) or Channels (Kanały) palette is active, then everything is fine - they remain opened on next launch. Also reordering the palettes doesn't make any difference - the problem persists only with the Layers palette :(