Select a shape layer in PS > right click > edit in AI > done and save > back to PS. So the temp doc in illustrator will be the same size as the original PS doc that means after editing the shape in AI it will stay at the same place.
You can currently sort-of do this by making a shape in photoshop, copy-pasting the vectors into illustrator, then copy-pasting it back in as a "smart object". From that point on, you can just double-click the smart object to open it in illustrator and when you save it, it updates in photoshop. It's just not editable in photoshop directly anymore.