When you scan an image with the scanner you can make digitally an enourmous large picture from an ID card picture. If you know the method what does the scanner use for creating high resolution digitally, you could build it in photoshop's resizing tool.
The scanner uses optics to scan the image at a particular resolution. If it's doing any scaling, it's using interpolation, which Photoshop has. When you choose Image > Image Size... select "Bicubic Smoother" when enlarging images.